Following the poor reception of Batman & Robin (1997), a series of unsuccessful attempts were made to resurrect Batman on the big screen which put the Batman film series on hold for nearly eight years. Then, in early 2003, Nolan and Goyer began work on Batman Begins. Aiming for a darker, more realistic tone compared to the previous films, a primary goal for their vision was to engage the audience’s emotional investment in both the Batman and Bruce Wayne identities of the lead character. The film, which was principally shot in the United Kingdom, Iceland and Chicago, relied heavily on traditional stunts and miniature effects, with computer-generated imagery being used in a minimal capacity compared to other action films. Comic book storylines such as The Man Who Falls, Batman: Year One and Batman: The Long Halloween served as inspiration.